Candida auris persists in the environment despite disinfection. Its survival on various environmental surfaces and the effect of sublethal concentrations of disinfectants on C. auris has not been studied.
To investigate the survival of C. auris on environmental surfaces, and the effect of sublethal concentrations of disinfectants.
Surface material blocks were fabricated and artificially contaminated with C. auris. Viable counts were assessed for 3 weeks. In addition, C. auris cells were pulsed daily with disinfectants for 15 days, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined. Ergosterol quantities and efflux pump assays were performed on disinfectant-exposed strains using standard methods.
C. auris survived on all the surfaces for >3 weeks, with the lowest count of 2.3 log colony-forming units, regardless of wet or dry conditions. Wet wood supported the growth of C. auris (a 1 log increase), whereas dry wood inhibited this organism (both P<0.01). In the biofilm form, C. auris flourished on all surfaces. Although the MICs increased in C. auris cells pulsed with sodium dichloroisocyanurate and benzalkonium chloride, only C. auris exposed to benzalkonium chloride showed decreased ergosterol content and an activated efflux pump.
Although C. auris survived on all tested surfaces, survival on wet wood was remarkable. C. auris pulsed with benzalkonium chloride developed some degree of tolerance to disinfectant and showed efflux pump activation, suggesting the development of low-level resistance.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Journal of Hospital Infection
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Candida auris incident management team. Candida auris: a review of the literature.Clin Microbiol Rev. 2018; 31: 1-18
- Candida auris investigation workgroup.Emerg Infect Dis. 2018; 24 (Candida auris in healthcare facilities, New York, USA, 2013–2017): 1816-1824
- The epidemiology and prevention of Candida auris.Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2019; 21: 19
- Environmental surfaces in healthcare facilities are a potential source for transmission of Candida auris and other Candida species.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2017; 38: 1107-1109
- Survival, persistence, and isolation of the emerging multidrug-resistant pathogenic yeast Candida auris on a plastic health care surface.J Clin Microbiol. 2017; 55: 2996-3005
- Candida auris: disinfectants and implications for infection control.Front Microbiol. 2018; 9: 1-12
- Yeasticidal activity of chemical disinfectants and antiseptics against Candida auris.J Hosp Infect. 2017; 97: 371-375
- Candida auris exhibits resilient biofilm characteristics in vitro: implications for environmental persistence.J Hosp Infect. 2019; 103: 926
- Candida auris dry surface biofilm (DSB) for disinfectant efficacy testing.Materials. 2019; 12: 18
- Effectiveness of disinfectants against Candida auris and other Candida species.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2017; 38: 1240-1243
- Antifungal activity of Coriaria nepalensis essential oil by disrupting ergosterol biosynthesis and membrane integrity against candida.Yeast. 2011; 28: 611-617
- Reversal of efflux mediated antifungal resistance underlies synergistic activity of two monoterpenes with fluconazole.Eur J Pharm Sci. 2013; 48: 80-86
- Bacterial cell attachment, the beginning of a biofilm.J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007; 34: 577-588
- Transcriptome assembly and profiling of Candida auris reveals novel insights into biofilm-mediated resistance.mSphere. 2018; 3: 1-14
- Study on microbial deposition and contamination onto six surfaces commonly used in chemical and microbiological laboratories.Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015; 12: 8295-8311
- Testing the antimicrobial characteristics of wood materials: a review of methods.Antibiotics. 2020; 9: 225
- Fungal degradation of wood: emerging data, new insights and changing perceptions.Coatings. 2020; 10: 1-19
- Yeasts in spa establishments.Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg B. 1982; 176: 167-175
- Chapter 9. Yeasts associated with decomposing plant material and rotting wood.in: Buzzini P. Lachance M.-A. Yurkov A.M. Yeasts in natural ecosystems: diversity. Springer, New York2017: 265-292
- Survival of Vibrio cholerae in African domestic water storage containers.SAMJ. 1989; 76: 365-367
- Potential impact of the resistance to quaternary ammonium disinfectants on the persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in food processing environments.Front Microbiol. 2016; 7: 638
- Quaternary ammonium disinfectants: microbial adaptation, degradation and ecology.Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2015; 33: 296-304
- Review on antifungal resistance mechanisms in the emerging pathogen Candida auris.Front Microbiol. 2019; 10: 2788
- Surface disinfection challenges for Candida auris: an in-vitro study.J Hosp Infect. 2018; 98: 433-436
- Evaluation of antifungal and disinfectant-resistant Candida species isolated from hospital wastewater.Arch Microbiol. 2020; 202: 2543-2550
- Fungal transporters involved in efflux of natural toxic compounds and fungicides.Fungal Genet Biol. 2000; 30: 1-15
- Coresistance to benzalkonium chloride disinfectant and heavy metal ions in Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua swine isolates from China.Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2019; 16: 696-703
- Comparative phenotypic and genotypic analysis of swiss and Finnish Listeria monocytogenes isolates with respect to benzalkonium chloride resistance.Front Microbiol. 2017; 397: 1-9
Published online: April 26, 2023
Accepted: April 16, 2023
Received: January 16, 2023
© 2023 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.