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Evaluation of a surgical antimicrobial stewardship programme including key performance metrics and stakeholder education

Published:September 30, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2022.09.015
      In 2019, an estimated 4.95 million deaths were associated with antimicrobial resistance (AMR), making AMR a major health threat [
      • Murray C.J.
      • Ikuta K.S.
      • Sharara F.
      • Swetschinski L.
      • Aguilar G.R.
      • Gray A.
      • et al.
      Global burden of bacterial antimicrobial resistance in 2019: a systematic analysis.
      ]. Resistant organisms are associated with higher morbidity, mortality, and costs [
      • Falagas M.E.
      • Tansarli G.S.
      • Karageorgopoulos D.E.
      • Vardakas K.Z.
      Deaths attributable to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections.
      ]. Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes are key activities in addressing AMR, and measurement of these programmes is important for quality improvement [
      • Huttner B.
      • Harbarth S.
      • Nathwani D.
      ESCMID Study Group for Antibiotic Policies
      Success stories of implementation of antimicrobial stewardship: a narrative review.
      ]. A 2017 Cochrane review demonstrated that ‘enablement’ and ‘restriction’ strategies have been independently associated with increased compliance with antibiotic policies. Enablement strategies were defined as strategies that increase means/reduce barriers to increase capability and opportunity. Enablement strategies enhanced the effect of restrictive interventions. Enabling interventions that included feedback were probably more effective than those that did not [
      • Davey P.
      • Marwick C.A.
      • Scott C.L.
      • Charani E.
      • McNeil K.
      • Brown E.
      • et al.
      Interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing practices for hospital inpatients.
      ]. We report our experience with the development and implementation of a surgical AMS programme.
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