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Biocide resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii: Appraising the Mechanisms

  • Esmael Shouri Milani
    Affiliations
    Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
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  • Alka Hasani
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Tabriz Iran.
    Affiliations
    Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

    Clinical Research Development Unit, Sina Educational, Research and Treatment Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University
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  • Mojtaba Varschochi
    Affiliations
    Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
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  • Javid Sadeghi
    Affiliations
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
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  • Mohammad Yosef Memar
    Affiliations
    Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
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  • Akbar Hasani
    Affiliations
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
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Published:October 14, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2021.10.009
      We appreciate the contribution of Black and colleagues [

      Black E, Weber J, Theelen M, Biocide resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii: Appraising the Mechanisms. Letter to Editor, https://www.journalofhospitalinfection.com/article/S0195-6701(21)00334-0/fulltext#%20

      ] in relation to our paper on biocide resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii [
      • Milani E.S.
      • Hasani A.
      • Varschochi M.
      • Sadeghi J.
      • Memar M.Y.
      • Hasani A.
      Biocide resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii: Appraising the Mechanisms.
      ]. European standard (NF EN) including EN 14885 and others EN 1276, prEN 12054, EN 13727 etc., have been applied as quantitative kill test for specific bacteria [
      • Milani E.S.
      • Hasani A.
      • Varschochi M.
      • Sadeghi J.
      • Memar M.Y.
      • Hasani A.
      Biocide resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii: Appraising the Mechanisms.
      ,
      • Meyer B.
      • Cookson B.
      Does microbial resistance or adaptation to biocides create a hazard in infection prevention and control?.
      ] whereby the number of viable bacteria is determined and the reduction in viability is calculated. The test has the main advantage that it applies to all types of disinfectants and allows testing of the effects of temperature and interfering substances [
      • Meyer B.
      • Cookson B.
      Does microbial resistance or adaptation to biocides create a hazard in infection prevention and control?.
      ]. This test specifies effectiveness of all disinfectants at recommended use concentrations and contact times [
      • Meyer B.
      • Cookson B.
      Does microbial resistance or adaptation to biocides create a hazard in infection prevention and control?.
      ,
      • Wisplinghoff H.
      • Schmitt R.
      • Wohrmann A.
      • Stefanik D.
      • Seifert H.
      Resistance to disinfectants in epidemiologically defined clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.
      ]. However, it is more time consuming and less reproducible than minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination [
      • Buffet-Bataillon S.
      • Tattevinc P.
      • Bonnaure-Mallet M.
      • Jolivet-Gougeon A.
      Emergence of resistance to antibacterial agents: the role of quaternary ammonium compounds—a critical review.
      ]. Moreover, resistance in bacteria is a phenomenon which can be achieved by mutation, acquisition of new genetic information by horizontal gene transfer, expression of previously silent genes, growth in a biofilm and other poorly defined phenotypic alterations which can be give rise to a transiently resistant phenotype [
      • Chapman J.S.
      Disinfectant resistance mechanisms, cross- resistance and co-resistance.
      ].
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      References

      1. Black E, Weber J, Theelen M, Biocide resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii: Appraising the Mechanisms. Letter to Editor, https://www.journalofhospitalinfection.com/article/S0195-6701(21)00334-0/fulltext#%20

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        Biocide resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii: Appraising the Mechanisms.
        J Hosp Infection. 2021; (Published:September 21, 2021)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2021.09.010
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        Disinfectant resistance mechanisms, cross- resistance and co-resistance.
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