Mental models: a basic concept for human factors design in infection prevention

  • H. Sax
    Corresponding author. Tel.: +41 44 255 57 30.
    HAL 14, Division of Infectious Diseases and Infection Control, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
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  • L. Clack
    HAL 14, Division of Infectious Diseases and Infection Control, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
    Search for articles by this author
Published:January 06, 2015DOI:


      Much of the effort devoted to promoting better hand hygiene is based on the belief that poor hand hygiene reflects poor motivation. We argue, however, that automatic unconscious behaviour driven by ‘mental models’ is an important contributor to what actually happens. Mental models are concepts of reality – imaginary, often blurred, and sometimes unstable. Human beings use them to reduce mental load and free up capacity in the conscious mind to focus on deliberate activities. They are pragmatic solutions to the complexity of life. Knowledge of such mental processes helps healthcare designers and clinicians overcome barriers to behavioural change. This article reviews the concept of mental models and considers how it can be used to improve hand hygiene and patient safety.


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