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How to eradicate Clostridium difficile from the environment

  • F. Barbut
    Correspondence
    Address: Hôpital Saint Antoine, UHLIN, 184, rue du faubourg Saint Antoine, 75012 Paris, France. Tel.: +33 1 49 28 30 11; fax: +33 1 49 28 30 09.
    Affiliations
    National Reference Laboratory for C. difficile and Clinical Research Group EPIDIFF, University Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France

    Infection Control Unit, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Paris, France
    Search for articles by this author
Published:January 07, 2015DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2014.12.007

      Summary

      During the last decade, Clostridium difficile has emerged as a major cause of healthcare-associated diarrhoea and death. Transmission of this spore-forming bacterium is thought to occur via the hands of healthcare providers or via the contaminated environment. Therefore, enhanced environmental cleaning/disinfection of the rooms housing C. difficile-infected patients is warranted. Guidelines from various scientific bodies have been published. They recommend performing environmental decontamination of rooms of patients with C. difficile infection (CDI) using hypochlorite (diluted 1/10) or a sporicidal product. Compliance with cleaning and disinfection is a critical point and is often suboptimal. Novel ‘no-touch’ methods for room disinfection have recently been introduced. Ultraviolet (UV) light or hydrogen peroxide systems are most widely used. In-vitro studies suggest that hydrogen peroxide vapour (from 30% hydrogen peroxide) methods achieve a >6 log10 reduction in C. difficile spores placed on carriers, and that aerosolized hydrogen peroxide systems (from 5% to 6% hydrogen peroxide) achieve ∼4 log10 reduction, whereas UV-based methods achieve ∼2 log10 reduction. Very few studies have assessed the impact of these devices on the transmission of C. difficile. Major limitations of these devices include the fact that they can only be used after the patient's discharge, because patients and staff must be removed from the room. The new no-touch methods for room disinfection supplement, but do not replace, daily cleaning.

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