Evaluation of hypochlorite-releasing disinfectants against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      Using a quantitative suspension test method, the antiviral activity of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was investigated. Viral suspensions were prepared containing 104–105 syncitial forming units ml−1 in 0·9% saline or 0·9% saline containing 10% Math Eq plasma to simulate clean and dirty conditions. A syncitial inhibition assay on C8166 lymphoblastoid line was used to determine viral titre. Results indicate that satisfactory disinfection (3–4 log reduction in 2 min) can be achieved using NaDCC and NaOCl at concentrations of 50 ppm and 2500 ppm available chlorine (AvCl2) for clean and soiled conditions respectively. For treatment of blood spillages, the addition of NaDCC and NaOCl solutions (10 000 ppm) to equal volumes of contaminated blood (giving a final AvCl2 concentration of 5000 ppm of blood) was sufficient to produce total kill within 2 min. For treatment of spillage material, chlorine-releasing powder formulations—which produce higher AVCl2 concentrations and achieve containment of spillage material—offer an effective alternative.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment


      Subscribe to Journal of Hospital Infection
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


      1. (Anonymous)Decontamination of equipment, linen or other surfaces contaminated with hepatitis B or human immunodeficiency virus. HN (87) 1. Department of Health and Social Security, London1987
        • Ayliffe G.A.J.
        • Coates D.
        • Hoffman P.N.
        Chemical Disinfectants in the Health Service. Department of Health and Social Security, London1984
        • Bloomfield S.F.
        • Miles G.A.
        The relationship between residual chlorine and disinfection capacity of sodium hypochlorite and sodium dichloroisocyanurate solutions in the presence of Escherichia coli and milk.
        Microbios Letters. 1979; 10: 33-43
        • Bloomfield S.F.
        • Miller E.A.
        A comparison of hypochlorite and phenolic disinfectants used for disinfection of clean and soiled surfaces and treatment of blood spillages.
        Journal of Hospital Infection. 1989; 13: 231-239
        • Bloomfield S.F.
        • Uso E.E.
        The antibacterial properties of sodium hypochlorite and sodium dichloroisocyanurate as hospital disinfectants.
        Journal of Hospital Infection. 1985; 6: 20-30
        • Bond W.W.
        • Favero M.S.
        • Peterson N.J.
        • Ebert J.W.
        Inactivation of hepatitis B virus by intermediate-to-high level disinfectant chemicals.
        Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 1983; 18: 535-538
        • Coates D.
        Comparison of sodium hypochlorite and sodium dichloroisocyanurate disinfectants: neutralization by serum.
        Journal of Hospital Infection. 1988; 11: 60-67
        • Kabler D.W.
        • Clarke N.A.
        • Berg G.
        • Chang S.L.
        Virucidal efficiency of disinfectants in water.
        U.S. Public Health Report. 1961; 76: 565-569
        • Klein M.
        • De Forest A.
        The inactivation of viruses by germicides.
        in: Proceedings of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Chemical Specialities Association. 1983: 116-119
        • Martin L.S.
        • McDougal J.S.
        • Loskoski S.L.
        Disinfection and inactivation of the human T lymphotrophic virus type III/lymphadenopathy—associated virus.
        Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1985; 152: 400-403
        • Shirobokov V.P.
        • Nikitenko A.G.
        • Yakimenko A.I.
        Virucidal activity of the sodium salt of dichloroisocyanuric acid and detergent compositions based on it in relation to enteroviruses.
        Mikrobiologi: cheskii Zhurnal (Kiev). 1975; 2: 205-211
        • Spickett G.
        • Beattie R.E.
        • Bountiff L.
        • Dalgleish A.G.
        • Webster A.D.B.
        Quantitation of HIV-1 activity in tissue culture supernatants: effects of culture conditions on syncytial assays and virus production.
        Journal of Virological Methods. 1989; 24: 67-76
        • Spire B.
        • Montagnier L.
        • Barre-Sinoussi F.
        • Chermann J.C.
        Inactivation of lymphadehopathy-associated virus by chemical disinfectants.
        Lancet. 1984; 2: 899-901
        • Taras A.
        • Greenberg A.
        • Hoak K.T.
        • Rand C.L.
        Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. American Waterworks Association, 1971: 107-146
        • Tyler R.
        • Ayliffe G.A.J.
        A surface test for virucidal activity of disinfectants—preliminary studies with herpes virus.
        Journal of Hospital Infection. 1987; 9: 22-29